According to the archaeological excavations, people started inhabiting the territory what is now called Sharkovschina in the 10th-12th centuries.
In the 16th-18th centuries the area saw rapid development of urban settlements due to the vigorous growth of trade and crafts including pottery, tanning industry, blacksmith’s work, joinery, clothing manufacture and shoemaking.
From 1795 to 1843 the territory of the region made part of the Minsk Province and from 1843 – the Vilnya Province. Sharkovshchina natives A.M. Buiko, I.V. Lagun, S.S. Gridyushko took part in the October Revolution in Petrograd.
The Soviet power was established in the region after REUNION of Belarus in September 1939. The Sharkovschina region was founded on January 15, 1940 with its centre in Sharkovshchina. The region included one urban and 14 rural councils.
The Nazis invaded the region on June 26, 1941. From the first days of the occupation numerous gallows were put up in the region as a deterrent. The youth were taken to Germany for forced labour.
During the war the Nazis executed 2027 civilians, burnt and destroyed 109 houses, 1.130 other premises. Some 1484 people were taken to Germany for forced labour, 1276 agricultural vehicles, 2655 horses, over 20 thousand of the cattle stock were liquidated or taken to Germany. The Nazis destroyed the railway, the bakery, three brickworks, four mills, plywood and saw-mill plants, schools, clubs and libraries. The enemy killed and burnt the residents of the villages of Kushtali, Svily, Trabovschina, Strona, Zhuravovschina, Kuslevschina, Belkovo. Nearly 400 natives of Sharkovschina died in the battlefield.
There were the underground movement young communist organization For the Motherland, partisan brigades Spartak, For the Motherland, Oktyabr, 16 underground organizations and 20 anti-Fascist groups. Some 156 soldiers of the Red Army were killed during the liberation of the region.
Great efforts were taken to restore the region after the war. Today the region is mainly engaged in the agricultural production and processing.